The Story of Lady Liberty on Morgan’s Dollar

The Morgan Dollar is one of only a few coins to have the distinction of being named after its designer George T. Morgan. Minted between the years of 1878 and 1904 and then again in 1921, the Morgan Dollar is 38.1 mm in diameter and weighs 26.73 grams. The metallic composition of the Morgan Dollar is .900 Silver, .100 Copper, and has an ASW of .77344 oz. pure silver. This PCGS MS-65 dollar with satin-like luster has a mintage of 9,976,000 and an approximate survival rate in MS-65 or better of 15,809 (PCGS CoinFacts).

In anticipation of the return of the silver dollar as a circulating coin, Mint Director Henry Linderman hired George T. Morgan in 1876 as an assistant engraver for the express purpose of designing a new silver dollar. Shortly thereafter, Morgan finished the reverse design, but the obverse design of the new dollar would be quite another issue. Then later in 1876 through a common friend, Thomas Eakins, Morgan found in the facial profile of Miss Anna W. Williams the perfect representation of the Goddess of Liberty for his dollar coin.

Miss Anna Williams, an art student in Philadelphia, was a modest 18-year-old girl. She did not crave notoriety or fame, but rather desired to pursue her passion as a schoolteacher in relative obscurity. When first asked to model for Morgan, she soundly refused. Through the encouragement of her friend Thomas Eakins, she finally agreed to model for Morgan under the stipulation that her identity remained anonymous. The official cover story would be that Morgan got the inspiration for his dollar from a Greek figure at the Philadelphia Academy of Art.

With final approval for the silver dollar design and passage of the Bland-Allison Act occurring on the same day, minting of the Morgan Dollar began in 1878. Unfortunately, the secret identity of Lady Liberty on the Morgan Dollar would be short-lived and in the summer of 1879, a Philadelphia newspaper revealed Anna Williams identity and dubbed her The Silver Dollar Girl.

This in turn brought a deluge of unwanted attention to Miss Anna W. Williams, then a schoolteacher at The House of Refuge. Fortunately, for Anna, this sudden surge of notoriety eventually subsided. However, in years to follow, Anna would reappear in the limelight and her decision to model for Morgan would vex her for the rest of her life.

In 1891, Anna Williams accepted a $60/month offer as a teacher of kindergarten philosophy at the Girls Normal School. In spite of the unwanted publicity as The Silver Dollar Girl, Anna became an accomplished teacher in her own rite. Annas literary talents allowed her to publish numerous articles in current periodicals and win an award for the best original essay on psychology. Consequently, this talent called her to several cities where she gave lectures on the topic of kindergarten teaching. Later Anna became the supervisor of kindergartens in Philadelphia, a position she held for more than 25 years until her retirement. Anna rarely granted interviews, but when she did, she used her notoriety as Morgans Goddess of Liberty as an opportunity to talk about the issues with which she was passionate.

Anna returned to the limelight in 1892 when she found herself and a print of her bust the subject of an article in The Ladies Home Journal. In 1896, Anna announced her engagement to be married. That announcement in turn was reprinted in the May 1896 issue of the ANA journal, The Numismatist. For whatever reason, the engagement broke off and Anna never married. While there are several theories as to why this occurred, I believe the excessive publicity surrounding the engagement eventually doomed it.

For me, this incident represents a sad chapter in Annas life and the constant struggle for any sense of normalcy in her life. This in turn is why I choose the 1896 Morgan Dollar to represent Miss Anna W. Williams story. I wonder if every time Anna handled one of these coins, it served as a constant reminder to her. Fortunately, for her, Morgan Dollars in Philadelphia circulated about as much as dollar coins do today.

Always the schoolteacher, Anna even in retirement advocated for compulsory kindergarten education for all students in Philadelphia. Then on April 17, 1926, Anna Willis Williams died in her hometown of Philadelphia at the age of 68. Annas obituary also appeared in the May 1926 issue of The Numismatist.

In summary, despite all the evidence to the contrary, there is still some speculation as to the identity of Lady Liberty on the Morgan Dollar. A letter sent from Morgans daughter to her daughter is the primary reason for doubt. In that letter Morgans daughter states, Father always said no matter how many models posed for him that he never bid any, and that he made up the obverse himself. However, from Annas perspective, she is quoted describing her role as Lady Liberty as, an incident of my youth. I think regardless of what happened, Morgan was going to keep up his end of the anonymity bargain, and the model for the Morgan Dollar is indeed that of Anna W. Williams. I am also posting a photo collage of a print I purchased on ebid alongside the obverse of the 1896 Morgan Dollar from my collection. For me this is the primary piece of evidence to the identity controversy concerning the Morgan dollar, as the resemblance is unmistakable.

Junes Coin of the Month is Out of this World

Junes Coin of the Month is a NGC PFUC-69 French 2009 10 Euro coin that commemorates the International Year of Astronomy and the 40th anniversary of mans first steps on the moon.

Greetings everyone, ever since I was a boy, I have had two enduring interests. The one is obvious, and it has to do with collecting coins. The other is not quite as apparent and has to do with science fiction and space exploration. This month, my Coin of the Month post brings both of these unrelated interests together into one coin.

The United Nations declared 2009 the International Year of Astronomy. This event was to coincide with the 400th anniversary of the first recorded astronomical observations through a telescope by Galileo Galilei. Some of the worldwide objectives of the International Year of Astronomy were to increase scientific awareness, improve science education, and promote widespread access to knowledge and observation. Coincidently, 2009 is also the 40th anniversary of Neil Armstrongs and Buzz Aldrins historic walk on the moon. To commemorate both these events, France has released a special 2009 silver 10 Euro coin.

Struck at the Paris Mint, this proof coin is 37mm in diameter and weighs 22.2 grams. The fineness of the coin is 900/1000 fine silver, and the mintage is 10,000. There are also colorized gold and five-ounce silver versions of this coin with identical designs. I bought this coin in 2009 directly from the Paris Mint.

The obverse of this coin has a relief similar to that of a shallow birdbath and pictures a mirrored Saturn and stars in a field of frosted space. Around the edge of the coin is a mirrored rim with engravings and astronomical symbols. The English translation of the engravings is 2009 International Year of Astronomy. The symbols around the bottom circumference represent the sun and the moon and each of the planets in our solar system. Noticeably missing from the symbols is the symbol for our home planet, Earth.

The symbols from left to right represent the moon, the sun, and the planets in order according to their distance from the sun. The first planetary symbol is the winged caduceus of Mercury, the god of commerce and communication. Next is the hand mirror of Venus, the goddess of love. The shield and spear of Mars, the god of war follows Venus. A thunderbolt, an eagle, and the letter zeta or Z represents Jupiter, the Roman equivalent of Zeus. A sickle represents Saturn the god of time. A globe surmounted by the letter H represents Uranus the god of the sky, the H is for William Herschel, the discoverer of Uranus. The trident represents Neptune the god of the sea. The symbol for Pluto, the god of the underworld, is reminiscent of Neptunes trident except that a globe replaces the center prong.

The reverse relief is similar to that of a convex camera lens and pictures a frosted image of a crescent moon. Emblazoned on the moon is a mirrored footprint to represent the historic walk on the moon of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. In the dark portion of the moons crescent with a mirrored backdrop is the coins face value of 10 Euros, the date, the letters RF representing the Republic of France, and two privy marks of which the cornucopia represents the Paris Mint. The inscription around the rim of the dark crescent translates to 40 years of the first steps on the moon.

Finally, I hope that you have enjoyed reading my post and learned a little more about the solar system we live in, just as I have.
Gary